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Marketing moves from schemers to schemas

Marketing has come a long way in the last 20-odd years since the advent of the Worldwide Web. Prior to the web, marketers were considered just this side of used car salesmen, with breathless pitches in full carnival barker-style ads. While marketers might not have become the winners of the most trusted profession surveys, they are no longer universally reviled as dirty little schemers that are just trying to fool us into buying their crappy products.

Now, it’s not schemers but schemas that we are all talking about. The real sexy marketers these days are the data scientists, whose feature analysis drives machine learning, and whose algorithms unearth insights that make sense to humans, but can be discovered only by a machine.

For the uninitiated, a schema is the layout of the database–the model for which fields will be stored, and in what form. Schemas have always been the go-to technique for databases. Think about the classic customer database schema, where you store the first and last names, address, gender, age, and plenty of other information. The original goal behind customer schemas was to accurately fill in as many of the fields for as many customers as possible.

But modern marketing databases are becoming sparse–some of the most interesting fields are only available for a small number of customers. For example, if you sell scissors, most of your sales go for typical uses–every home boasts several scissors, and every child uses one in school–but you’d want to note in your customer database whether this customer is a crafter or a scrapbooker, because not only do they buy more scissors, they buy more expensive scissors.

But this kind of data was expensive to store in the old schema days, because you had to devote fields to crafter (yes or no) and scrapbooker (yes or no), even though hardly any folks have the field marked as yes. It was a colossal waste of space, which also meant that your database ran slower. Today, a new technique has emerged, as I discussed in a recent interview: the schemaless database.

The most common type of schemaless database is one you are looking at right now–the web page. All web pages are composed of HTML, which uses tag-value pairs to define the content on each page. HTML is not the usual form of schemaless databases, however. They started as XML databases, but now are often stored as JSON objects. Whatever the form, dumping the schema allows efficient support of sparse data structures–where you have a lot of data but there are many different tags (or fields).

What does this mean to marketers? More and more obscure data can be stored and retrieved about your customers without gumming up your database performance. Whatever you know can be stored, even if you weren’t aware you wanted to store it when you designed the database. You can always add another tag.

Are you using schemaless databases? If not, why not?

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Mike Moran

Mike Moran is an expert in digital marketing, search technology, social media, text analytics, web personalization, and web metrics, who, as a Certified Speaking Professional, regularly makes speaking appearances. Mike’s previous appearances include keynote speaking appearances worldwide. Mike serves as a senior strategist for Converseon, an AI powered consumer intelligence technology and consulting firm. He is also a senior strategist for SoloSegment, a marketing automation software solutions and services firm. Mike also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of SEMPO. Mike spent 30 years at IBM, rising to Distinguished Engineer, an executive-level technical position. Mike held various roles in his IBM career, including eight years at IBM’s customer-facing website, ibm.com, most recently as the Manager of ibm.com Web Experience, where he led 65 information architects, web designers, webmasters, programmers, and technical architects around the world. Mike's newest book is Outside-In Marketing with world-renowned author James Mathewson. He is co-author of the best-selling Search Engine Marketing, Inc. (with fellow search marketing expert Bill Hunt), now in its Third Edition. Mike is also the author of the acclaimed internet marketing book, Do It Wrong Quickly: How the Web Changes the Old Marketing Rules, named one of best business books of 2007 by the Miami Herald. Mike founded and writes for Biznology® and writes regularly for other blogs. In addition to Mike’s broad technical background, he holds an Advanced Certificate in Market Management Practice from the Royal UK Charter Institute of Marketing and is a Visiting Lecturer at the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business. He also teaches at Rutgers Business School. He is a Senior Fellow at the Society for New Communications Research. Mike worked at ibm.com from 1998 through 2006, pioneering IBM’s successful search marketing program. IBM’s website of over two million pages was a classic “big company” website that has traditionally been difficult to optimize for search marketing. Mike, working with Bill Hunt, developed a strategy for search engine marketing that works for any business, large or small. Moran and Hunt spearheaded IBM’s content improvement that has resulted in dramatic gains in traffic from Google and other internet portals.

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